When a culture is high in uncertainty avoidance, people are likely to:

When a culture is high in uncertainty avoidance, people are likely to:

Question 1 (5 points)

When a culture is high in uncertainty avoidance, people are likely to:

Question 1 options:

search for absolute truths.

expect their leaders to allow participation.

rely on their community for information.

have a short term orientation.

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Question 2 (5 points)

The three key elements of leadership effectiveness are:

Question 2 options:

goal achievement, smooth internal processes, external adaptability.

follower satisfaction, leader control, empowerment.

goal achievement, stock prices, customer satisfaction.

flexibility, follower satisfaction, stakeholder satisfaction.

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Question 3 (5 points)

__ is the degree to which a culture values fairness, generosity, caring and kindness.

Question 3 options:

Uncertainty avoidance

Humane orientation

In-group collectivism

Future orientation

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Question 4 (5 points)

National organizational heritage refers to:

Question 4 options:

the wealth of each organization.

the culture of different organizations.

the management styles based on national cultures.

organizational events that shape national culture.

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Question 5 (5 points)

Determining span of control, reporting relationships, and degree of formalization and specialization are all elements of which function of how leaders shape organizational culture?

Question 5 options:

developing strategies and structures

influencing hiring decisions

creating effective reward systems

role modeling

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Question 6 (5 points)

The key argument against the impact of leadership centers around the idea that:

Question 6 options:

most leaders are simply not effective.

social and environmental factors affect organizations more than leaders.

culture and organizational rigidity do not allow leaders to make their mark.

other managers impact organizations as much as leaders.

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Question 7 (5 points)

Vertical/horizontal dimension impacts leadership because:

Question 7 options:

it deals with people.

it relates to how rules are used.

it focuses on how leaders use participation in their culture.

it affects views of hierarchy and equality.

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Question 8 (5 points)

According to research by Mintzberg, the job of a manager is characterized by:

Question 8 options:

many cultural encounters.

a wide variety of tasks and many interruptions.

a series of well-defined activities that start with planning and end in controlling.

political activities that are essential to being effective.

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Question 9 (5 points)

Leadership and management become more closely similar when considering the issue of:

Question 9 options:

effectiveness and competence.

national and organizational culture.

individual traits.

organizational performance.

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Question 10 (5 points)

In the United States there is a ‘population hourglass’ whereby the largest percentage of the population is older baby boomers, the millennial generation is at the bottom and generation Xers are in the middle. The challenges arising from issues regarding the differences in these age groups represents which major factor fueling organizational change and their leaders?

Question 10 options:

increased globalization

employee expectations

political changes

demographic changes

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Question 11 (5 points)

Individualistic cultures tend to:

Question 11 options:

expect people to conform to social norms before they become independent.

emphasize performance over social support.

focus on individual achievement.

value material goods.

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Question 12 (5 points)

Leaders from individualistic cultures would best be characterized by:

Question 12 options:

engaging in team-oriented activities.

seeking recognition.

demonstrating high levels of participation behaviors.

employing supportive leader behaviors.

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Question 13 (5 points)

Which of the items is one of Hofstede’s five dimensions of culture?

Question 13 options:

Power distance

Egalitarian

High context

Performance orientation

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Question 14 (5 points)

Which of the following statements is true about the definition of leadership effectiveness?

Question 14 options:

Leadership effectiveness depends on the goals of the organization.

Leadership effectiveness must take into account the personality of the leader.

Leadership effectiveness is the same regardless of the organization.

Leadership effectiveness is always based on performance.

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Question 15 (5 points)

Japan and Korea are examples of:

Question 15 options:

loose cultures.

individualistic cultures.

vertical collectivistic cultures.

cultures that are comfortable with uncertainty.

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Question 16 (5 points)

Which one of the following factors is the key element of most definitions of leadership effectiveness?

Question 16 options:

employee satisfaction

stakeholder needs

focus on outcome

financial measures

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Question 17 (5 points)

Leaders are often role models for their followers. Recent research suggests that leaders must also pay attention to:

Question 17 options:

sexual harassment and its negative impact.

the use of power.

how outsiders impact their followers.

their own emotional reactions.

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Question 18 (5 points)

Tolerance of uncertainty refers to:

Question 18 options:

how much uncertainty exists in the political system.

how quickly managers make decisions.

the extent to which employees rely on their manager for decision making.

how comfortable people are with ambiguity

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Question 19 (5 points)

Helgesen called the “female” style of management:

Question 19 options:

non-hierarchical charisma.

interconnected management.

participative management.

the web.

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Question 20 (5 points)

People from high context cultures typically:

Question 20 options:

rely on non-verbal cues and situational factors to communicate.

rely on the written word and clearly stated statement to communicate.

value leaders who take care of people.

value leaders who focus on the task.

Question 1 (5 points)

Having a clear task that provides direct feedback to follower serves as a substitute for:

Question 1 options:

leader consideration behaviors.

organizational policies.

leader structuring behaviors.

leader’s lack of power.

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Question 2 (5 points)

The two primary leadership behaviors that are still in use are:

Question 2 options:

laissez-faire and charismatic motivation.

autocratic and democratic.

visionary and practical.

consideration and initiation of structure.

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Question 3 (5 points)

The primary assumption of the contingency approach to leadership is:

Question 3 options:

leadership depends on culture.

what works depends on the situation.

behavior of leaders is contingent on their personality.

leadership effectiveness is contingent on the role of followers.

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Question 4 (5 points)

The major shortcoming of Lewin’s early research on leader behavior was that:

Question 4 options:

the behaviors were difficult to define clearly.

the researchers could not measure the leader behaviors consistently.

it was not clear which behavior was most effective.

only task behavior was shown to improve performance.

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Question 5 (5 points)

Prior to the industrial revolution, the study of leadership relied on:

Question 5 options:

scientific studies.

intuition and description.

case analyses.

the trait approach to understand leaders.

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Question 6 (5 points)

Employees who do not have a high quality LMX are likely to experience one of the following.

Question 6 options:

Assignment to challenging tasks

A lot of positive and negative communication from their leader

Limited interaction with the leader

High performance expectations

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Question 7 (5 points)

According the Path-Goal Theory, the leader must motivate followers by:

Question 7 options:

encouraging them to do their best.

strengthening the links among effort, performance, and outcomes.

addressing each follower’s needs.

being both a supportive and a task-oriented leader who focuses on followers.

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Question 8 (5 points)

Suzanna would like to improve her leadership effectiveness using Path-Goal theories of leadership. She should:

Question 8 options:

identify her in-group and out-group and how followers get in each group.

make sure that she has enough power.

understand her followers’ need for autonomy and their perception of the task.

make sure she is comfortable with a variety of decision styles.

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Question 9 (5 points)

In the _ decision style, the leader makes the decision alone, with or without information from the group.

Question 9 options:

autocratic

individual

consultative

group

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Question 10 (5 points)

The substitute for leadership model has increasing applications to many organizations as they:

Question 10 options:

implement the use teams.

select leaders with certain traits.

teach leaders to be both considerate and provide structure.

move to other cultures.

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Question 11 (5 points)

The modern scientific study of leadership can be divided into three eras. These are:

Question 11 options:

trait, behavior, contingency.

charismatic, visionary, exemplary.

case studies, research, theory building.

personality, event-based, complex analysis.

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Question 12 (5 points)

Which of the following principles is the basis for the Normative Decision Model?

Question 12 options:

Empowerment is always effective.

Western employees expect to participate in decision making.

Groups are wasteful and inefficient.

Employee motivation results from the leader removing obstacles.

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Question 13 (5 points)

When there is no quality requirement and employee commitment is not needed, the most appropriate leader decision style is:

Question 13 options:

autocratic.

individual.

consultative.

group.

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Question 14 (5 points)

According to Fiedler, __ is the most important factor in any leadership situation.

Question 14 options:

leader-member relations

task structure

follower maturity

position power

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Question 15 (5 points)

The key issue in keeping in-groups productive is:

Question 15 options:

the leader’s personality.

the followers’ personality.

how in-group members are selected.

the quality of the LMX.

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Question 16 (5 points)

Anwar is a task-motivated leader who is in a high situational control environment. Based on Fiedler’s Contingency Model, he is likely to:

Question 16 options:

be tense, overbearing, and over controlling.

be confident, considerate, and focused on removing obstacles.

be considerate, open to suggestions and concerned with resolving conflicts.

Be directive, serious, and with little concern for others.

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Question 17 (5 points)

According to group dynamics research that is the basis for the Normative Decision Model:

Question 17 options:

groups make better decisions.

well trained groups make faster decisions than individuals.

leaders get better results when they rely on groups.

participation in decision-making leads to commitment.

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Question 18 (5 points)

According to the Contingency Model, task-motivated leaders will be most effective in which type of situation?

Question 18 options:

moderate control

low control

high-control

all situations

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Question 19 (5 points)

Which of the following factors contributed to the development of the behavior approach to leadership?

Question 19 options:

the need to find leaders during World War II

the development of personality testing

the use of behavioral surveys to measure traits

access to military leaders

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Question 20 (5 points)

When the employees’ commitment is essential, they generally agree with the goals of the organization, and the leader does not have enough information, the most appropriate decision style is:

Question 20 options:

autocratic.

consultative.

delegation.

individual.

Question 1 (5 points)

__ is the Big Five personality dimension that is important in jobs such as management that require social interaction.

Question 1 options:

Emotional intelligence

Extraversion

Openness to experience

Agreeableness

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Question 2 (5 points)

Which one of the following have been found to be relatively universal values?

Question 2 options:

Individuality and individual dignity

Personal achievement and performance

Fairness and honesty

Desire for recognition and rewards

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Question 3 (5 points)

Which of the Big Five personality dimensions is most strongly correlated to job performance?

Question 3 options:

concientiousness

emotional intelligence

openness to experience

agreeableness

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Question 4 (5 points)

A team leader focuses on assuring that his team members have the latest expertise not available elsewhere in the organization. He is using which organizational source of power to assure that his team has power?

Question 4 options:

centrality

organicity

substitutability

coalition building

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Question 5 (5 points)

Which of the following best describe Type As?

Question 5 options:

Type As are strategic thinkers who are proactive.

Type As try to do more in less time.

Type As are willing to cut corners to achieve their goals.

Type As are good at persuading others.

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Question 6 (5 points)

Research about the effect of power distribution suggests that:

Question 6 options:

centralized power allows organizations to perform well.

concentrated power can be detrimental to performance.

leaders often give up their power willingly.

power sharing works well in most cultures.

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Question 7 (5 points)

Older generations in Western Europe and the U.S. tend to __ than younger generation.

Question 7 options:

bemoresuspicioius of authoriy

have a stronger sense of cultural superiority

be more independent

be more tied to their parents and family members

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Question 8 (5 points)

United States laws forbid business people to bribe others even in cultures where bribery is expected or necessary. This approach to ethics reflects a __ view of ethics.

Question 8 options:

universalist

contingency

relativist

cultural

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Question 9 (5 points)

Which one of the following influences a person’s value system?

Question 9 options:

abilities

skills

leadership

culture

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Question 10 (5 points)

__ is one of the influence tactics that rely on all sources of personal power.

Question 10 options:

Pressure

Personal appeal

Consultation

Rational persuasion

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Question 11 (5 points)

Abilities tend to be:

Question 11 options:

stable over an extended period of time.

related to culture.

based on values.

related to leadership.

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Question 12 (5 points)

The concept of __ suggests that teams gain power based on their ability to remove obstacles for others.

Question 12 options:

strategic contingencies

shared power

empowerment

coalition building

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Question 13 (5 points)

A __ view of ethics suggests that what is right or wrong depends on the situation.

Question 13 options:

universalist

contingency

relativist

cultural

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Question 14 (5 points)

The key organizational factor in abuse of power is:

Question 14 options:

a decentralized structure.

the organizational culture.

the leadership succession plan.

the training and development plan.

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Question 15 (5 points)

Marta has just been appointed to a top level executive position in her company. Which of the following leadership skills is she most likely to need and use?

Question 15 options:

technical

interpersonal

conceptual

organizational

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Question 16 (5 points)

The leader’s power increases when employees:

Question 16 options:

are motivated.

comply with her decisions.

do not resist a decision.

are committed to her decisions.

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Question 17 (5 points)

Individual difference characteristics affect a person’s behavior most when:

Question 17 options:

the situation provides clear guidelines.

the situation is loosely structured.

the person is strong willed.

the person is flexible.

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Question 18 (5 points)

Locus of control is an indicator of:

Question 18 options:

how much control a person needs.

how much control a person feels he/she has.

the control level of leaders.

control available in the situation.

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Question 19 (5 points)

The underlying theme of empowerment is:

Question 19 options:

delegating all power to employees.

sharing power with those who need it to perform their job.

setting goals that everyone can achieve easily.

centralizing decision making in the team.

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Question 20 (5 points)

Individuals with __ power can influence others because they are liked and respected.

Question 20 options:

legitimate

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